Emergency 0113 267 8419
Cookridge 0113 267 8419
Greengates 01274 610627

Updated policies - Find out all the information about our updated policies at the bottom of the page.

Neutering in Dogs and Cats

Neutering in Dogs and Cats


2018. Urinary obstruction in male cats [Online]. Acvs.org. Available: www.acvs.org/small-animal/ urinary-obstruction-cats [Accessed].

BEAUVAIS, W., CARDWELL, J. M. & BRODBELT, D. C. 2012a. The effect of neutering on the risk of mammary tumours in dogs--a systemic review. J Small Animal Practice, 53, 314-22.

BEAUVAIS, W., CARDWELL, J. M. & BRODBELT, D. C. 2012b. The effect of neutering on the risk of urinary incontinence in bitches - a systemic review. J Small Animal Practice, 53, 198-204.

BIGLIARDI, E. & FERRARI, L. 2011. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the normal canine prostate gland. Vet Radial Ultrasound, 52, 107-10.

BRYAN, J. N., KEELER, M. R., HENRY, C. J., BRYAN, M. E., HAHN, A. W. & CALDWELL, C. W. 2007. A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer. Prostate, 67, 1174-81.

BYRON, J. K., TAYLOR, K. H., PHILLIPS, G. S. & STAHL, M. S. 2017. Urethral Sphincter Mechanism Incompetence in 163 Neutered Female Dogs: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Relationship of Weight and Age at Neuter to Development of Disease. J Vet Intern Med, 31, 442-448.

CONGRESS, W. F. B. Neutering: how early is too early?  Veterinary Record, 2012.

COOLEY, D. M., BERANEK, B. C., SCHLITTLER, D. L., GLICKMAN, N. W., GLICKMAN, L. T. & WATERS, D. J. 2002. Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11, 1434-40.

DE BLESER, B., BRODBELT, D. C., GREGORY, N. G. & MARTINEZ, T. A. 2011. The association between acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence in bitches and early spaying: a case-control study. Vet J, 187, 42-7.

DOWNES, M. J., DEVITT, C., DOWNES, M. T. & MORE, S. J. 2015. Neutering of cats and dogs in Ireland; pet owner self-reported perceptions of enabling and disabling factors in the decision to neuter. PeerJ, 3, e1196.

HART, B. L., HART, L. A., THIGPEN, A. P. & WILLITS, N. H. 2020. Assisting Decision-Making on Age of Neutering for 35 Breeds of Dogs: Associated Joint Disorders, Cancers, and Urinary Incontinence. Front Vet Sci, 7, 388.

HEUTER, K. J. 2008. Handbook of small animal practice: diseases of the prostate, St. Louis, USA, Saunders Elsevier. HOLT, P. E. & THRUSFIELD, M. V. 1993. Association in bitches between breed, size, neutering and docking, and acquired urinary incontinence due to incompetence of the urethral sphincter mechanism. Vet Rec, 133, 177-80.

HOTSTON MOORE, A. 2017. Neutering and acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence: what is the evidence? BSAVA Congress. Birmingham, UK.

HOWE, L. M. 1997. Short-term results and complications of prepubertal gonadectomy in cats and dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 211, 57-62. HOWE, L. M. 2015. Current perspectives on the optimal age to spay/castrate dogs and cats. Vet Med (Auckl), 6, 171-180.

KENT, M. S., BURTON, J. H., DANK, G., BANNASCH, D. L. & REBHUN, R. B. 2018. Association of cancer related mortality, age and gonadectomy in golden retriever dogs at a veterinary academic center (1989-2016). PLoS One, 13, e0192578.

MCNICHOLAS, W. T., JR., WILKENS, B. E., BLEVINS, W. E., SNYDER, P. W., MCCABE, G. P., APPLEWHITE, A. A., LAVERTY, P. H. & BREUR, G. J. 2002. Spontaneous femoral capital physeal fractures in adult cats: 26 cases (1996-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc, 221, 1731-6.

MERLO, D. F., ROSSI, L., PELLEGRINO, C., CEPPI, M., CARDELLINO, U., CAPURRO, C., RATTO, A., SAMBUCCO, P. L., SESTITO, V., TANARA, G. & BOCCHINI, V. 2008. Cancer incidence in pet dogs: findings of the Animal Tumour Registry of Genoa, Italy. J Vet Intern Med, 22, 976-84.

SALMERI, K. R., BLOOMBERG, M. S., SCRUGGS, S. L. & SHILLE, V. 1991. Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 198, 1193-203.

SCHNEIDER, R., DORN, C. R. & TAYLOR, D. O. 1969. Factors influencing canine mammary cancer development and postsurgical survival. J Natl Cancer Inst, 43, 1249-61. SPAIN, C. V., SCARLETT, J. M. & HOUPT, K. A. 2004. Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 224, 380-7.

THRUSFIELD, M. V., HOLT, P. E. & MUIRHEAD, R. H. 1998. Acquired urinary incontinence in bitches: its incidence and relationship to neutering practices. J Small Animal Practice, 39, 559-66.

TORRES DE LA RIVA, G., HART, B. L., FARVER, T. B., OBERBAUER, A. M., MESSAM, L. L., WILLITS, N. & HART, L. A. 2013. Neutering dogs: effects on joint disorders and cancers in golden retrievers. PLoS One, 8, e55937.

VOITH, V. L. 1979. Treatment of fear reactions: canine aggression. Mod Vet Pract, 60, 903-5. YATES, D., YEATES, J. & ROBERTS, M. 2013. Optimum age for neutering cats. Vet Rec, 172, 53-4.