Emergency 0113 267 8419
Cookridge 0113 267 8419
Greengates 01274 610627

We are open and COVID-19 SECURE. Click here to find out more

Neutering in Dogs and Cats

Neutering in Dogs and Cats


2018. Urinary obstruction in male cats [Online]. Acvs.org. Available: www.acvs.org/small-animal/ urinary-obstruction-cats [Accessed].

BEAUVAIS, W., CARDWELL, J. M. & BRODBELT, D. C. 2012a. The effect of neutering on the risk of mammary tumours in dogs--a systemic review. J Small Animal Practice, 53, 314-22.

BEAUVAIS, W., CARDWELL, J. M. & BRODBELT, D. C. 2012b. The effect of neutering on the risk of urinary incontinence in bitches - a systemic review. J Small Animal Practice, 53, 198-204.

BIGLIARDI, E. & FERRARI, L. 2011. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the normal canine prostate gland. Vet Radial Ultrasound, 52, 107-10.

BRYAN, J. N., KEELER, M. R., HENRY, C. J., BRYAN, M. E., HAHN, A. W. & CALDWELL, C. W. 2007. A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer. Prostate, 67, 1174-81.

BYRON, J. K., TAYLOR, K. H., PHILLIPS, G. S. & STAHL, M. S. 2017. Urethral Sphincter Mechanism Incompetence in 163 Neutered Female Dogs: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Relationship of Weight and Age at Neuter to Development of Disease. J Vet Intern Med, 31, 442-448.

CONGRESS, W. F. B. Neutering: how early is too early?  Veterinary Record, 2012.

COOLEY, D. M., BERANEK, B. C., SCHLITTLER, D. L., GLICKMAN, N. W., GLICKMAN, L. T. & WATERS, D. J. 2002. Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11, 1434-40.

DE BLESER, B., BRODBELT, D. C., GREGORY, N. G. & MARTINEZ, T. A. 2011. The association between acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence in bitches and early spaying: a case-control study. Vet J, 187, 42-7.

DOWNES, M. J., DEVITT, C., DOWNES, M. T. & MORE, S. J. 2015. Neutering of cats and dogs in Ireland; pet owner self-reported perceptions of enabling and disabling factors in the decision to neuter. PeerJ, 3, e1196.

HART, B. L., HART, L. A., THIGPEN, A. P. & WILLITS, N. H. 2020. Assisting Decision-Making on Age of Neutering for 35 Breeds of Dogs: Associated Joint Disorders, Cancers, and Urinary Incontinence. Front Vet Sci, 7, 388.

HEUTER, K. J. 2008. Handbook of small animal practice: diseases of the prostate, St. Louis, USA, Saunders Elsevier. HOLT, P. E. & THRUSFIELD, M. V. 1993. Association in bitches between breed, size, neutering and docking, and acquired urinary incontinence due to incompetence of the urethral sphincter mechanism. Vet Rec, 133, 177-80.

HOTSTON MOORE, A. 2017. Neutering and acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence: what is the evidence? BSAVA Congress. Birmingham, UK.

HOWE, L. M. 1997. Short-term results and complications of prepubertal gonadectomy in cats and dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 211, 57-62. HOWE, L. M. 2015. Current perspectives on the optimal age to spay/castrate dogs and cats. Vet Med (Auckl), 6, 171-180.

KENT, M. S., BURTON, J. H., DANK, G., BANNASCH, D. L. & REBHUN, R. B. 2018. Association of cancer related mortality, age and gonadectomy in golden retriever dogs at a veterinary academic center (1989-2016). PLoS One, 13, e0192578.

MCNICHOLAS, W. T., JR., WILKENS, B. E., BLEVINS, W. E., SNYDER, P. W., MCCABE, G. P., APPLEWHITE, A. A., LAVERTY, P. H. & BREUR, G. J. 2002. Spontaneous femoral capital physeal fractures in adult cats: 26 cases (1996-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc, 221, 1731-6.

MERLO, D. F., ROSSI, L., PELLEGRINO, C., CEPPI, M., CARDELLINO, U., CAPURRO, C., RATTO, A., SAMBUCCO, P. L., SESTITO, V., TANARA, G. & BOCCHINI, V. 2008. Cancer incidence in pet dogs: findings of the Animal Tumour Registry of Genoa, Italy. J Vet Intern Med, 22, 976-84.

SALMERI, K. R., BLOOMBERG, M. S., SCRUGGS, S. L. & SHILLE, V. 1991. Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 198, 1193-203.

SCHNEIDER, R., DORN, C. R. & TAYLOR, D. O. 1969. Factors influencing canine mammary cancer development and postsurgical survival. J Natl Cancer Inst, 43, 1249-61. SPAIN, C. V., SCARLETT, J. M. & HOUPT, K. A. 2004. Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 224, 380-7.

THRUSFIELD, M. V., HOLT, P. E. & MUIRHEAD, R. H. 1998. Acquired urinary incontinence in bitches: its incidence and relationship to neutering practices. J Small Animal Practice, 39, 559-66.

TORRES DE LA RIVA, G., HART, B. L., FARVER, T. B., OBERBAUER, A. M., MESSAM, L. L., WILLITS, N. & HART, L. A. 2013. Neutering dogs: effects on joint disorders and cancers in golden retrievers. PLoS One, 8, e55937.

VOITH, V. L. 1979. Treatment of fear reactions: canine aggression. Mod Vet Pract, 60, 903-5. YATES, D., YEATES, J. & ROBERTS, M. 2013. Optimum age for neutering cats. Vet Rec, 172, 53-4.